Particulate matter is the most severe pollutant among other pollutants. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) Particulate Matters Can easily penetrate in human lungs as its very small in size and it affects to their respiratory system and cardiac system. Regular monitoring of PM should be done to take advance steps for the controlling process.
Ultra-fine Particulate Matter (PM1), Suspended Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Particulate Matter 10 (PM10). Particulate Matter (PM) is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere which may include dust particles, biological contaminants like bacteria, mold, pollen; particulate contaminants like oil-smoke, fly-ash, cement dust etc. The size of the Particulate Matter (PM) varies from 0.1micron to 100 microns.
Thermal Power Plants, Vehicle Fuel Emission, Open Fire, Atmospheric Dust, Smog, Cement Industry, Natural Sources etc.
Larger particles are generally filtered in the nose and throat via cilia and mucus, but particulate matter smaller than about 10 micrometers, can settle in the bronchi and lungs and cause health problems. The effects of inhaling particulate matter that has been widely studied in humans and animals include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, premature delivery, birth defects, and premature death.
The IARC and WHO designates particulates a Group 1 carcinogen. Particulates are the deadliest form of air pollution due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams unfiltered, causing permanent DNA mutations, heart attacks and premature death. In 2013, the ESCAPE study involving 312,944 people in nine European countries revealed that there was no safe level of particulates and that for every increase of 10 ug/m3 in PM10, the lung cancer rate rose 22%. For PM2.5 there was a 36% increase in lung cancer per 10 ug/m3. In a 2014 meta analysis of 18 studies globally including the ESCAPE data, for every increase of 10 ug/m3 in PM2.5, the lung cancer rate rose 9%.
“The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2005 that “fine particulate air pollution (PM(2.5)), causes about 3% of mortality from cardiopulmonary disease, about 5% of mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung, and about 1% of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years, worldwide.”